Geography NECO Questions and Answers 2022/2023

NECO Geography Questions and Answers 2022/2023 for both Essay and Objectives
2022 NECO Geography Exam Questions and Answers. I’ll be providing free access to NECO Geography theory and objective test questions. Along with many other test facts, you will comprehend how the NECO Geography Practical (map reading) problems are structured.
The National Examination Council is an examination body that annually assigns questions from subject areas that students should be able to write and pass without stress after their senior secondary school studies.Scholarship to Study in UK from Nigeria (Undergraduate & Postgraduate) 2022
Answers to NECO Geography questions The NECO 2022 Geography solutions to questions will be published here, and the accuracy of the Objectives and Essay has been checked and validated to be sure.
NECO Geography Questions and Solutions 2022..During the NECO Geography exam, a link to the 2022 NECO Geography Expo will be displayed here. Continue to check and reload this page.
NECO Human and Regional Geography Answers:
(1a) A conurbation is a region made up of multiple metropolises, cities, big towns, and other urban areas that have fused into one continuous urban or industrially developed area as a result of population development and physical expansion.
(i) Residential housing shortage: Conurbation enables individuals to shift from rural to urban regions, which in turn leads to population growth. Increased population density in metropolitan areas frequently causes a continual housing shortage and makes it necessary for a big amount of land for continued settlement expansion.WAEC Geography Questions and Answers 2022/2023 (Objectives and Theory)
(ii) Increasing levels of pollution: In most cities in the developing world, pollution of the air, land, and water is a big issue. The push for industrialization inevitably leads to issues.To reduce the areas where industrial emissions are produced, industrial areas should be established.
(iii) Creation of employment opportunities: Government should establish industries, support private investors, and should encourage entrepreneurship by providing more funding in the city. Governments should also develop some strict laws governing refuse dumping in an open environment.
(2a) (i) Absence of Appropriate Drainage Facilities: Another significant factor that has seriously harmed the condition of Nigerian roads is erosion, which is brought about by an absence of appropriate drainage facilities such as Gutters. Road networks should have adequate drainage systems as well so that water won’t collect on the roadways and wash the asphalt surface away.
(ii) Bad condition of the roads: Because of erosion, portholes, and poor drainage systems, the majority of the roadways are in very poor condition. Transportation is not only challenging and stressful but also dangerous while traveling on roads with potholes and uneven edges or surfaces because some of those routes are near accident hotspots.
(iii). Pavements may soften and expand as a result of rising temperatures. Potholes may result from this, especially in places with heavy traffic, and stressed bridge joints may result as well. The building and upkeep of roads and highways may become exceedingly expensive as a result of these effects.
(iv) Inadequate maintenance: One of the key issues causing the bad condition of transportation infrastructure is inadequate maintenance of the land transport system. They don’t get timely assistance from the government. Such roads’ state has gotten worse over time as a result of poor upkeep and the use of subpar materials for repairs.NECO-Geography-Past-Questions
In comparison to air transportation
(i) land transportation is significantly less expensive; (ii) it is better suited for shorter distances and makes access to rural areas simple; and (iii) it offers simple door-to-door and flexible services.
(iv) Less packaging is needed for land transportation, which is suitable for conveying relatively smaller amounts of goods.
Transport eases the burdens of some production factors’ immobility (2c) (i) Mobility of labor and capital: The growth of transportation promotes the mobility of labor and capital. The movement of people from one location to another is encouraged by an effective network of transportation services.
(ii) Specialization and the division of labor: Transportation enables each region and nation to utilize its national resources as effectively and optimally as possible. Transporting people and things from one location to another encourages specialization and the division of labor, which reduces resource waste and lowers production costs.
(iii) Agriculture’s Development: Transportation aids in the development of agriculture. A substantial part of the growth in agricultural products can be attributed to effective transportation. Transport infrastructure enhances the quality of seeds and facilitates the use of advanced agricultural practices quality of fertilizers and seedlings.
(iv) Price stability: Transportation options smooth out erratic swings. From regions where there is surplus and prices are low, goods can be transported to places where there is shortage and prices are high. The mobility of goods contributes to keeping consistent pricing across the nation and further tends to equalize the costs of goods worldwide.
(v) Employment Opportunities and an Increase in GDP: Around the world, there are millions of individuals employed by various modes of transportation. A nation’s economic growth is reliant on its enhanced transportation infrastructure. As a result, transportation plays a significant role in a country’s national income.
3a) The manufacturing business is one that uses labor, machinery, tools, biological or chemical processing, or formulation, to transform raw materials or semi-finished goods into finished goods.
(3b) (i) Labor-intensive: Most sectors need a lot of labor to produce their goods or provide their services, and the labor input is higher than the capital input, which helps to increase employment.
(ii) Mainly small-scale industries: Small-scale industries are made up of small businesses that produce goods or services using relatively small machines and a small number of workers. This increases per capital income and the efficient use of resources in the economy.
(iii)The demand for consumer products serves as the basis for the production of industrial goods. These manufactured consumer items are finished things, or end products, that customers can buy for use at home, at school, at work, or for leisure or personal use.
(3c)Heavy industry is a significant industry while, small-scale industry is light industry.
(ii) While light industry creates comparatively lightweight commodities, heavy industry creates bulky or heavy things.
(iii) Heavy industry needs a significant amount of capital, a lot of raw materials, and complex equipment. WHILE Light industry has lower capital and labor requirements.
(4b) (i) Protection of Woods: It is important to safeguard the current forests. One of the causes is unorganized grazing in addition to commercial cutting. Numerous parasitic fungus, rusts, mistletoes, viruses, and nematodes that cause forest illnesses include the removal of trees. Either chemical sprays, medicines, or the cultivation of disease-resistant tree strains should be used to protect the woods.
(ii) Regulated and Planned Cutting of Trees: Cutting of trees should be controlled by adopting techniques like the clear cutting method, which is useful in areas where the same types of trees are present over a large area, the selective cutting of only mature trees, and shelter wood cutting, in which first useless trees are cut down, then medium-quality timber trees, and finally the best-quality timber trees.
(iii) Reforestation and Afforestation:  Reforestation should be done on any previously forested land that has been devastated by mining or fire. The choice of trees for afforestation should be carried out in accordance with the specific geographic conditions of the area, and care must be taken when the trees are young.
It decreases agricultural output and causes land to lose its biological and economic worth
(i) Creation of jobs: The act of exploring and mining these minerals typically results in job creation for individuals, which in turn results in employment.
(ii) Revenue generation: One of the ways the Nigerian government earns income for the country’s economy is through taxes paid by mining corporations, including the export and import charges on minerals obtained from the abundant resources in the nation.
(iii) Earning foreign currency: Mining activities have resulted in the export of minerals like coal and petroleum and tin from Nigeria, bolstering the nation’s economy with foreign currency.
Problems with mineral exploitation in Nigeria
(i)Degradation of the landscape and an increase in soil erosion
(iii) Engine air pollution
(i)The development of an appropriate drainage system.
 (ii)The prudent management of exploitation sites, and the use of cutting-edge technologies in exploration.
(6a) (i) Hydropower generation: Dams produce hydroelectric power for the nation, raising living standards in ways like domestic power use.The dams’ energy output is pure and pollution-free.
(ii) Encourages irrigation farming: Farmers use irrigation water that is stored in dams and streams to water their crops. Irrigation canals from rivers and dams are used to transport water in locations where rain and water are scarce, enhancing food output and income.
(iii) Economic diversification: Dams contribute to economic diversification by fostering a wide range of economic activities in the region, including agriculture, trade, industry, and rising national income.
(iii) Flooding control: The dam has stopped certain areas from flooding.
(6b) (i) Inadequate vegetation and erosion: Poor vegetative cover and erosion on a dam are brought on by overgrazing, ineffective weed management, concentrated runoff, and wave erosion. Damage and erosion are particularly prone to occur on bare soil or in areas with little vegetation.
(ii) Obstructions in outlet channel: Beaver dams, accumulated sediment, and other obstructions placed in outlet channels can back water up into spillway outlets, reducing their capacity. Reduced discharge capacity will cause the reservoir to rise and possibly overtop the dam. Prolonged overtopping can cause dam failure.
(i) Areas of sparse vegetation should be reseeded with perennial grasses each spring or fall and control weeds by mowing or application of herbicides.
(ii) Clear out beaver dams, sediment, and other obstructions from outlet channels to prevent water from backing up into spillway pipes. When clearing out accumulated debris during times of high flow, use extreme caution.
The size, shape, and arrangement of a rock’s grains (for sedimentary rocks) or crystals (for igneous and metamorphic rocks) determine the rock’s texture. Rhyolite, andesite, and basalt are a few examples.
An igneous rock’s structure is typically thought to consist of the interactions between mineral or mineral-glass aggregates with different textures, as well as layering, fractures, and other larger-scale structures that cross or bind these aggregates.
(iii) Colour: A rock’s color can tell you what kinds of minerals are there and what kind of rock it is. The ratio of dark-colored (mafic) to light-colored (felsic) minerals is measured by an igneous rock’s color index.
– Rocks that are formed when magma cools and solidifies underground are referred to as plutonic rocks.
– It cools at a very slow rate and may take thousands or millions of years to solidify.
–Rocks that are formed from lava that flows on the surface of the Earth and other planets and then cools and solidifies are referred to as volcanic rocks.
– It doesn’t cool at a very slow rate and it doesn’t take thousands or millions of years to solidify.
(i) The atmospheric condition of a place over a short period (days, weeks, hours, months) is referred to as weather.
(ii) Weather changes very often.
(iii) Weather cannot be generalized.
(i) The average condition of a place over a long period of time (35 years) is referred to as climate.
(ii) Climate does not change very often.
(iii) Climate can be generalized.
Environmental resources means any important item in the environment or materials and substances that are useful to man.
[PICK ANY FOUR] (i) Atmospheric resources
(ii) Human resources
(iii) Mineral resources
(iv) Land resources
(v) Vegetation resources.
[PICK ANY TWO] (i) Forest resources such as timber products provide raw materials for the local industries e.g. furniture industry.
(ii) Forest resources gives herbs for pharmaceutical and herbal industries and clinics. They contribute positively to the health of the people.
(iii) Exportation of forest resources provides government with foreign exchange e.g. export of timber.
(iv) It aid various levels of government to generate revenue from taxes imposed on products and firms involved in the exploitation of forest resources.
(v) Forest resources makes available habitation for wildlife and also aid to promote tourism e.g. Yankari game reserve in Nigeria etc.
(i) It is cost effective and requires less manpower as it is tool-based.
(ii) It requires field study to interpret data into useful information
(i) It is a costly affair as the data is incurred from space and through sensors and satellites.
(ii) It reduces manual work and ground field study.
(i) In Telecommunication: It has been discovered that satellite remote sensing is more significant and useful in this field. Without coming into direct contact with people, regional, national, and worldwide communication is now feasible.
(ii) In Transportation: A revolution in the transportation network has been facilitated by the accessibility of high resolution commercial remote sensing. The use of satellite remote sensing in transportation is advantageous because it increases the usability of the roadways and has a significant impact on the movement of aircraft, jets, and even objects that are invisible to the human eye.
(i) Inadequate Power
(ii) Inadequate Personnel
(iii) Inadequate Personnel
(iv) Inadequate capital